In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed
a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. During
the 1990's a new group of cognitive psychologists, lead by Lorin Anderson (a
former student of Bloom) and David Krathwohl, updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance
to 21st century work. Bloom's Taxonomy in its various forms represents the process
of learning. You can not understand a concept if you do not first remember it, similarly
you can not apply knowledge and concepts if you do not understand them. It is a
continuum from Lower Order Thinking Skills (LOTS) to Higher Order Thinking Skills
(HOTS). Iowa State University's Center for
Excellence in Learning and Teaching has an interactive
Flash-based model with examples of learning objectives
that generally match each of the various combinations of
the cognitive process and knowledge dimensions.
It is found
Recall Specific Information Exhibit memory of previously learned
materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers.
Where is (are) ...?
Why did ...?
Who is (was) ...?
Can you recall ...?
Can you tell three ...?
Can you find the meaning of ...?
How would you describe ...?
How would you explain ...?
How did ____ happen?
Which is true or false...?
Describe what happened at...?
Explain Ideas or Concepts Demonstrate understanding of facts and
ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions and
stating main ideas.
How would you compare ...contrast...?
What was the main idea ...?
Can you explain what is meant by ...?
What could have happened next if ...?
Can you tell in your own words ...?
Who do you think ...?
Who was the main character ...?
Can you distinguish between ____ and ____?
How would you classify ...?
What differences exist between ____ and ____?
Can you define ...?
Implement or Use the Information Solve problems to new situations
by applying adquired knowledge, facts, technuqies and rules in a different way.
What examples can you find to support...?
How would you organize _____ to show ...?
What questions would you ask of ...?
What facts would you select to demonstrate ...?
What would result if ...?
What other way would you choose to ...?
How would you change ...?
What approach would you use to ...?
Do you know another instance where ...?
Could this have happened in ...?
What factors would you change if ...?
Break Information into Parts and Describe the Relationship Examine
and break information in to parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences
and find evidence to support generalizations.
What ideas justify ...?
How is ____ similar to ____ ...?
What evidence can you find ...?
What is the relationship between ...?
If ____ happened, what might the ending have been?
How is _____ related to _____ ...?
What is the theme of ...?
What motive is there behind ...?
Can you distinguish between ____ and ____?
What are the problems of ...?
Can you sort the different parts ...?
What can you infer ...?
Justify a Decision or Course of Action Present and defend opinions
by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based
on a set of criteria.
What is your opinion of ...?
How would you defend your position about ...?
Can you assess the importance of ...?
What choice would you have made if ...?
What would you recommend ...?
How would you rate the ...?
How could you evaluate ...?
How could you determine ...?
What facts would you use to prioritize ...?
What judgment would you make about ...?
What is the most significant ...?
Why was it better that ...?
Generate New Ideas, Products or Views Complete information together
in a different way by compining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative
What changes would you make to ...?
How could you improve ...?
Can you suggest an alternative ...?
How would you elaborate on the reason ...?
What can you invent ...?
Can you create a new use for ...?
How would you test ...?
How could you change the plot ...?
How would you design ...?
What could be combined to change ...?
Can you think of a unique way to ...?
What would be your prediction if ...?
Tablets are being used more and more in the classroom. If you are interested in
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